Conjunctions – Because & So Lesson 60

Lesson 60

  1. Conjunctions – Because & So
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 60 Conjunctions – Part 4 ( Because & So)

Because and so are usually used in a sentence that is a reply to a ‘Why’ question.

Ex:

Why is he the best student?
He is the best student because he studies a lot.
He studies a lot so he is the best student.

So WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN “SO” AND “BECAUSE”?

Use ‘because’ to express a reason:

He is the best student because he studies a lot.
(result) <———- (reason)

Use ‘so’ to express a result:

He studies a lot, so he is the best student.

(reason) ——–> (result)
Now let us see what happens in Tamil.

 

For ‘Because/ So – ennaa / -adhanaale

Ex:

1. Why is he the best student? Yen, Avan thaan sirandha maanavan?
He is the best student because he studies a lot. Avan thaan sirandha maanavan, ennaa avan romba adhigamaa padikiren.

2. Why is he the best student? Yedhanaale, Avan thaan sirandha maanavan?
He studies a lot, so he is the best student. Avan romba padippaan, adhanaale avan thaan sirandha maanavan.

 

Examples


Jeyanth-um avaroda manaivu-um eppavum padathukku povaanga. Aanaa inaikku avangaloda pasangalum vandhirukaanga. Yen?. Jeyanth and his wife usually go to the movie, but today why have his kids come along too.
Inaikku avanga ellarum padathukku vandhirukaanga, yenaa, idhu oru kuzhandhaigal padam. They all have come today, because it is a kids’ movie.
Avanga ellarum kannaadi pottu irukaanga. Edhanaale indha kannaadi potu-irukaanga? They are all wearing glasses. Why are they all wearing glasses?
Adhu oru 3D padam, adhanaale avanga ellarum andha kannaadi potu-irukaanga. That is a 3D movie, so they are wearing those glasses.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Avanga ellarum kanaadi potu-irukaanga, yenaa idhu oru 3D padam. They all are wearing these glasses because it is a 3D movie.

 


Madhu : Amma, enakku yen juram vandhichu? Mom, why am I sick?
Amma : Neththu nee mazhai-la nananjitte. Adhanaale thaan unakku juram vandhadhu. Vaa namma doctor kitta pogalaam. Yesterday, you got wet in the rain. So you have fever. Come, let’s go to the doctor.
Madhu : Aanaa, doctor kitta edhukku poganum. Enakku doctor kitta poga vendaam. But , why should we go to a doctor? I don’t want to go to the doctor.
Amma : Doctor kitta kattaayamaa poganum, yenaa, naalaikku nee pallikku poganum. Naalaikku unakku paritchai irukku. We have to go to the doctor, for sure, because you have to go to the school. Tomorrow you have an exam.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Amma : Naalaikku Nee palli-kku poganum. Unakku paritchai irukku. Adhanaale ippo doctor kitta kattaayamaa poganum. Tomorrow, you have an exam. And you have to go to the school. So you should go to the doctor now.

 


Anna, neenga yen tholaikaatchi alaivarisai-a maathitte irukeenga? Anna, why do you keep on changing the television channels?
Inaikku oru nalla padam irukku. Adhanaale adhai theduren. There is a good movie today, and so I am searching for it.
Aana, ippo yen tholaikaatchi-a anaichitteenga? But, why have you turned it off now?
Enakku andha padam kidaikkale, adhanaale naan tholaikaatchi-a anaichitten. I haven’t got it, so I turned it off.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Naan tholaikkaatchi-a anaichitten, ennaa, enakku andha padam kidaikkale. I turned off the tv, because I did not get the movie.

 


Yamini, violin vaasikka kathukkiraa, adhanaale ava dhinamum payirchi seivaa. Yaamini is practicing violin, because she is learning to play the violin.
Avaloda veetule yaarume illai, adhanaale ava romba saththamaa vaasikiraa. There is no one at home, so she is playing it loudly.
Avalukku naalaikku oru kachcheri irukku. Adhanaale ava ippo vaasichi pazhagittu irukkaa. She has a concert tomorrow. So she is practicing now.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Ava ippo violin vaasichi pazhaguraa. Yenaa, avalukku naalaikku oru kachcheri irukku. She is practicing the violin, because she has a concert tomorrow.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. edhanaale:
_________________________________________________________

2. idhanaale:
_________________________________________________________

3. aanaa:
_________________________________________________________

4. yenna/ ennaa:
_________________________________________________________

5. kuzhandhainga padam:
_________________________________________________________

6. tholaikaatchi:
_________________________________________________________

7. saththamaa:
_________________________________________________________

8. pazhagu :
_________________________________________________________

9. anaichidu:
_________________________________________________________

10. kachcheri:
_________________________________________________________

11. juram:
_________________________________________________________

12. kannaadi:
_________________________________________________________

13. ellaarum:
_________________________________________________________

14. maaththu:
_________________________________________________________

15. kaththuko:
_________________________________________________________

16. alavarisai :
_________________________________________________________

17. neththu:
_________________________________________________________

18. yaarume illa:
_________________________________________________________

19. theduraan:
_________________________________________________________

20. mazhai:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Manaivi – wife
Padam – movie/ picture
Pasanga – children
Kuzhandhainga padam – kids’ movie
Ellaarum – everyone
Kannaadi – glasses
Edhanale – why
Idhanaale – This is why/ So
Yenaa/ ennaa – Because
Mazhai – Rain
Nanai – To get wet
Adhukku – For that
Edhukku – For what/ why
Tholaikaatchi – Television
Alaivarisai – Channel
Maaththu – To change
Anai – To turn off/ switch off
Vaasi – To play
Kaththukiraa – She is learning
Payirchi – Practice
Yaarume illa – No one/ none/ nobody
Saththamaa – Loud
Kachcheri – Concert
Pazhagu – Practice
Thedu – Find

 

Translate:


1. She wanted that doll, so she cried.

2. He did not come, so I was angry.

3. I love eating donuts so my mother bought some donuts.

4. The school was quiet, as the boys had gone for a match.

5. I sold the old watch because I wanted a new one.

6. Everyone loves him, because he looks handsome.

7. He sleeps because he is very tired.

8. She was beautiful, because her mom too was beautiful.

9. She was rich and so he loved her.

10. They are vegans, so they eat only vegetables.

11. My mom shouted, because I broke her favorite vase.

12. I did not have a pen, so he gave me one.

13. It is Diwali, so the children are bursting crackers..

 

Try to describe the picture:

Tenses – Perfect Continuous Lesson 59

Lesson 59

  1. When? –Perfect Continuous
  2. Pudhu Vaarthaigal
  3. Exercises

 

Lesson 59 When? – Tense – Perfect Continuous form

Today, we will see the Continuous form of the Tenses. But even before we start learning about Continuous form of the tenses, let us refresh by translating these Simple form sentences.

• Raju ate an apple everyday.

• Dad had gone to the market today morning.

• Grandpa has forgotten me.

• Vita has brought these flowers.

• John would have bought newspaper.

• Tommy has always obeyed his master.

• Mom saves money in the bank.

• Danny lost the coin yesterday.

• Rasi wears new dress every week.

• Grandma has read us a new story today.

• Sumitha is counting the money in her purse.

 

Perfect Continuous form of the tenses

We are going to see the simple form in all the three tenses. Try framing more by yourself.

 

Past Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous

Naan – I (Sing.)First person
Nee enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhe? Nee enna senjittu irundhu-irruke? Nee enna senjittu irundhu-irrupe?
Naan nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhen. Naan inge paadam padichittu irundhu-irukken Naan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupen
Naan appo dress pottittu irundhu-irrundhen. Naan ippo pudhu dress pottittu irundhu-irruken. Naalaikku Naan pirandha naal dress pottittu irundhu-irrupen.
Naan andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhen. Naan ippo vaazhai pazham saaptittu irundhu-irruken. Naan andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupen.
Naanga – We (Plu.) First person
Neenga enna senjittu irundhu-irrundheenga? Neenga enna senjittu irundhu-irrukeenga? Neenga enna senjittu irundhu-irrupeenga?
Naanga nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhom. Naanga innaikku paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukrom. Naanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupom.
Naanga appo dress pottittu irundhu-irrundhom. Naanga ippo room-la dress pottittu irundhu-irrukrom. Naanga naalaikku fancy dress pottittu irundhu-irrupom.
Naanga andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhom. Naanga inge nalla saaptittu irundhu- irrukrom. Naanga naalaikku indha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupom.
Nee– You ( Sing.) Second person
Nee/Neenga nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga innaikku nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/Neenga nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Nee/Neenga appo dress potittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga ippo room-la dress potittu irundhu-irruke/eenga. Nee/Neenga naalaikku fancy dress potittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga.
Nee/ Neenga andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/ Neenga ippo ozhungaa saaptittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/ Neenga naalaikku idhe neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Neenga – You (Plu.) Second person
Nee/Neenga nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga innaikku nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/Neenga nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Nee/Neenga appo dress potittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga ippo room-la dress potittu irundhu-irruke/eenga. Nee/Neenga naalaikku fancy dress potittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga.
Nee/ Neenga andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/ Neenga ippo ozhungaa saaptittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/ Neenga naalaikku idhe neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Avan – He (Third person ) Informal
Avan enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhaan? Avan enna senjittu irundhu-irrukaan? Avan enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaan?
Avan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaan Avan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaan Avan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaan
Avan dress potittu irundhu-irrundhaan Avan dress potittu irundhu-irrukaan Avan dress potittu irundhu-irrupaan
Avan saapitittu irundhu-irrundhaan Avan saapitittu irundhu- irrukaan Avan saapitittu irundhu-irrupaan
Avar – He (Third person ) – Formal
Avar enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhaar? Avar enna senjittu irundhu- irrukaar? Avar enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaar?
Avar paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaar Avar paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaar Avar paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaar
Avar dress potittu irundhu-irrundhaar Avar dress potittu irundhu-irrukaar Avar dress potittu irundhu-irrupaar
Avar saapitittu irundhu- irrundhaar Avar saapitittu irundhu- irrukaar Avar saapitittu irundhu-irrupaar
Aval – She – Informal – Third person
Aval enna senjittu irundhu- irrundhaa? Aval enna senjittu irundhu-irrukaa/irrukaanga? Aval enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaa?
Aval paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaa Aval paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaa Aval paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaa
Aval dress potittu irundhu-irrundhaa Aval dress potittu irundhu-irrukaa Aval dress potittu irundhu-irrupaa
Aval saapitittu irundhu-irrundhaa Aval saapitittu irundhu-irrukaa/kaanga Aval saapitittu irundhu-irrupaa
Avanga – She Third person – Formal
Avanga enna senjittu irundhu- irrundhaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu- irrukaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu- irrupaanga?
Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu- irundhaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu- irukaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu- irupaanga
Avanga dress potittu irundhu- irundhaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu- irukaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu- irupaanga
Avanga saapitittu irundhu- irundhaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu- irukaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu- irupaanga
Avanga – They (Plu.) Third person
Avanga enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu-irrukaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaanga?
Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaanga
Avanga dress potittu irundhu-irundhaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu-irrukaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu-irrupaanga
Avanga saapitittu irundhu-irundhaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu-irrukaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu-irrupaanga
Adhu/Idhu – IT Third person
Adhu/Idhu enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhadhu/ irrundhichu? Adhu/Idhu enna senjittu irundhu-irruku? Adhu/Idhu enna senjittu irundhu-irrukum?
Adhu/Idhu veliya paarthittu irundhu-irrundhadhu Adhu/Idhu veliya paarthittu irundhu-irruku Adhu/Idhu veliya paarthittu irundhu-irrukum
Adhu/Idhu dress potittu irundhu-irrundhadhu Adhu/Idhu dress potittu irundhu-irrukudhu Adhu/Idhu dress potittu irundhu-irrukum
Adhu/Idhu saapadu saapitittu irundhu-irrundhadhu Adhu/Idhu saapadu saapitittu irundhu-irrukudhu Adhu/Idhu saapadu saapitittu irundhu-irrukum

 

Examples of the Perfect Continuous form:

 


Gopi : Thambi, indha vandi-a unga thaathaa evalavu naala payan paduthittu irundh-irundhaar. How long had been your grandpa using this vehicle.
Vineeth : Avar 10 varushamaa payanpaduthittu irundh-irundhaar. He had been using it for about 10 years.
Avarukku apramaa, en appa moonu varushamaa indha vandi-a vechittu irundh-irukaanga. And after that, my dad has been using it for three years.
Naan idha rendu varushamaa payan paduthittu irundhen. I have been using it for two years.

 

Anjali, nee US-la irundha podhu, endha church-kku pone? Which church did you go to, when you had been in US.
Naan GLG church-kku poyittu irundh-irundhen. I had been going to GLG church.
Ange naan 4 varushamaa Sunday school-kku poyittu irundh-irundhen. There, I had been going to the Sunday school for four years.
Naanum 2 vaysule irundhu, Sunday school-kku poyittu irundh-irukken.. Even I too have been going to Sunday school for 2 years.


 


Mr. Rajeev, thoongaadheenga! Mr. Rajeev, don’t sleep.
Naan neththu raathiri muzhusaa project velai paarthittu irundhen.. I was doing the project work, the whole night.
Poi solladheenga! Neenga neththu raathiri padam paarthittu irundh-iruppeenga. Don’t lie. You would have been watching the late night movie.
Hmm. Adhu ungalukku eppadi theriyum. How do you know that?
Naanum ippadi thaan. Late night movie paarthaa, office-la thoonguven. I am just like you. I sleep in the office when I watch late night movies.

 

Ajith-oda thaatha paati 10 varaushamaa, India-la vaazhndhittu irundh-irukaanga. Ajith’s grandparents have been living in India, for 10 years.
Adhukku munnaadi, 15 varushamaa, New York-la vaazhndhittu irundh-irudhaanga. Before that, they have been in NY for 15 years.
Avanga India-la, Ajith kooda romba sandhoshamaa vaazhndhittu irundh-irupaanga. They would have been living with Ajith, very happily.
Avangalukku, Ajith-a vittu thirumba New York-kku poga virupame illai. They are not happy about leaving behind Ajith and going back to NY.


 


Arasan Shah Jahan, thannoda manaivi Mumtaaz-oda ninaiva Taj Mahal kattinaar.. Emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaaz.
Idha 18 varushamaa kattittu irundh-irudhaangalam. They had been building it for 18 years.
Idha India arasaangam, pala varushamaa paadhukaathittu irundh-irukaanga. The Indian government has been taking good care of this for years.

 


Cinderella oru azhagaana ilavarasi. Cinderella is a beautiful princess.
Adhukku munnaadi, Avaloda chiththi avalai romba naalaa, veetu velai seiya vechittu irundh-irukaanga. Before that, her step mom has been making her do all the household work.
Oru naal, avaloda chitthi-um, avaloda magalgalum oru arasanoda virundhukku poi-irundh-irukaanga. One day, her stepmom and her daughters had been going for a party.
Aval than veetu thottathle azhudhittu irundh-irundhaa.. She had been crying in her garden.
Adhukku apramaa enna nadandhichu.. unakku theriyuma? Do you know what happened after that?


 

Try to say the following in Tamil. Also try to change it to tenses that we learnt today.

1. Raju has been singing since 3 years of age.

2. Dad has always been shopping all these days.

3. Grandpa would have been eating too uch of sweets.

4. Veeta is chewing gum in class.

5. John has been buying newspapers for these months.

6. Tommy had been obeying his master always.

7. Pascal has been coming to school late.

8. Mom will be saving money in the bank.

9. Danny had been sleeping all day.

10. Grandma would have been reading stories for him.

11. Sumitha has been believing him all these years.

12. Rasi would have been wearing a new dress.

 

Try to frame sentences with the given verbs in the perfect tense:

1. Po:
__________________________________________

2. Vaa:
_________________________________________

3. Thoongu:
_____________________________________

4. Vettu:
________________________________________

5. Madi:
________________________________________

6. Pesu:
_________________________________________

7. Saapidu:
______________________________________

8. Otu:
__________________________________________

9. Thallu:
________________________________________

10. Vilayaadu:
____________________________________

11. Vaangu:
______________________________________

12. Padi :
________________________________________

13. Ezhudhu :
_____________________________________

 

Try to say about the pictures in the tenses we learnt today.

 

Describe the picture, using the prepositions and tenses:

 

Conjunctions – Because, Since, As – Lesson 58

Lesson 58

  1. Conjunctions – Because, Since & As
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 58 Conjunctions – Part 3 ( Because, Since & As)

Today we are going to see about another three conjugations. Because, Since and As.

‘Because’ is used to express a reason.

He is the best student because he studies a lot.

The because is replaced by since and as in some sentences.This is a case not only in English, but also in Tamil too.
Now let us see how we frame such sentences using Because, Since and As.

 

For ‘Because/ Since/ As’ – ennaa / -aale

Ex:

1. He is the best student because he studies a lot.
Avan thaan sirandha maanavan, ennaa avan romba adhigamaa padikiren.

2. Since he studies a lot, he is the best student.
Avan romba adhigamaa padikradhaale, avan thaan sirandha maanavan.

3. He is the best student, as he studies a lot.
Avan romba adhigamaa padikradhaale, avan thaan sirandha maanavan.

The since and the as pattern is usually similar and they are the ones that are most commonly used in the spoken form.

Since and As are used in other sentences, where they have a different meaning. But now let’s see when they are used as a equivalent of Because.

 

Examples


Inaikku Kaadhalar dhinam endrathaal, Vikram Rathikku oru modhiram vaangi-irukkaan. Vikram has bought a ring for Rathi, as it is Valentine’s day.

We do not speak this way. Now let us see how we speak …

Vikram Rathikku oru modhiram vaangi-irukkaan, ennaa inaikku Kaadhalar dhinam. Vikram has bought a ring for Rathi, as it is Valentine’s day.
Adhu romba vilai adhigam ennaa, andha kal romba aridhaanadhu. It is an expensive ring as it is a very rare gem.

Now look at the sentence given below. It is in the written form. Now try to use the spoken form …

Vikram romba anbaanavan endrathaal, Rathikkum Vikram romba pidikkum. Rathi too loves Vikram because he is a loving person.

 


Inaikku, Prem-kku romba adhigamaa juram irukku. Avan neththu ice-cream saapittaan. Prem has a high fever. He ate ice cream yesterday.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Inaikku, Prem-kku romba juram irukku, ennaa neththu avan niraya ice-cream saapitaan. Prem has a high fever today, because he ate ice-creams yesterday.
Avanukku marundhu kudikka pidikkale. Adhu romba kasappaa irukku. He doesn’t like to drink his medicine. It is very bitter.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Avanukku marundhu kudikka pidikkale, ennaa adhu romba kasappa irukku. He doesn’t like to drink the medicine, as it is too bitter.

 


Viji-kku avaloda naai Mani romba pidikkum. Adhu eppavum avalukku keezhpadiyum. Viji loves her dog, Mani. It always obeys her.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Vijikku avaloda naai, Mani-a romba pidikkum, ennaa adhu avalukku eppavum keezhpadiyum. Viji loves her dog, Mani, because it always obeys her.
Mani oru elumbu thundu pidikka oduraan. Avanukku elumbu-na romba pidikkum. Mani is running to catch a piece of bone. He likes bones very much.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Mani oru elumbu thund-a pidika oduraan, ennaa avanukku elumbu-na romba pidikkum. Mani is running to catch a piece of bone, as he loves bones.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. Kaadhalar dhinam:
_________________________________________________________

2. modhiram:
_________________________________________________________

3. vilai:
_________________________________________________________

4. kal:
_________________________________________________________

5. aridhu:
_________________________________________________________

6. ennaa:
_________________________________________________________

7. elumbu thundu:
_________________________________________________________

8. pidikka odu :
_________________________________________________________

9. kasappu:
_________________________________________________________

10. niraya:
_________________________________________________________

11. juram:
_________________________________________________________

12. marundhu:
_________________________________________________________

13. kudikka pidikkale:
_________________________________________________________

14. keezhpadi:
_________________________________________________________

15. eppavum:
_________________________________________________________

16. inaikku :
_________________________________________________________

17. neththu:
_________________________________________________________

18. saapittaan:
_________________________________________________________

19. vilai adhigam:
_________________________________________________________

20. anbaanavar:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Kaadhalar dhinam – Valentine’s day
Modhiram – Ring
Vilai adhigam – Expensive, costly
Aridhu – Rare
Vaangi-irukkaan – He has bought
Kal – Stone/ gem
Anbaanavan – He is loving
Juram – Fever
Marundhu – Medicine
Kudikka – To drink (present participle)
Keezhpadi – Obey
Eppavum – Always
Inaikku – Today
Neththu – Yesterday
Elumbu – Bone
Elumbu thundu – A piece of bone
Pidikka odu – Runs to catch
Kasappu – Bitter

 

Translate:


1. She washed the clothes because they were very dirty.

2. He bought me some flowers because I was angry.

3. I love eating donuts because they are very sweet and tasty.

4. The school was quiet, as the boys had gone for a match.

5. I sold the old watch because it did not work.

6. Everyone loves him, because he looks handsome.

7. He sleeps because he is very tired.

8. She was beautiful, because her mom too was beautiful.

9. He loved her, because her father was a millionaire.

10. They don’t eat meat, because they are vegans .

11. My mom shouted, because I broke her favorite vase.

12. He asked for a pen, because he did not have one.

13. The chef prepares plum cakes, because it’s Christmas time.

 

Try to describe the picture:

Conjunctions – But – Lesson 57

Lesson 57

  1. Conjunctions – BUT
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 57 Conjunctions – Part 2 ( BUT)

Today we are going to see about another conjunction. But.

‘But’ is used

1. to connect ideas that contrast.
2. Means except in certain cases
3. To introduce a reason why something didn’t happen..
And in a few more cases..

So now let us see how we frame such sentences in which the word ‘But’ is used.

 

For ‘But’ – aanaal/ thavira/

First let us see the Tamil conjunction equivalent to the ‘But’ in English

 

Case

But… When we connect

In Spoken Tamil We use..

1 a. Main idea with a contrasting phrase
b. When there is a ‘whereas’ in the statement
We use ‘aanaal/ aanaa’
2 But when it means ‘except’ We use the word ‘thavira’ which means except
2 Using ‘but for’ instead of if There are different ways of framing such sentences. We will see it in detail in the lesson on ‘IF’

 

Examples

1 a. Connecting a main phrase with a contrasting phrase:


Raj-um Ravi-um annan thambi. Avanga rendu perum vera vera kadaigal vechi-irukaanga. Raju and Ravi are brothers. They both have different shops.
Now let us try to connect the above contrasting phrases…
Rajum Raviyum annan thambi, aanaa avanga rendu perum vera vera kadaigal vechi-irukaanga. Raju and Ravi are brothers, but they have two different shops.
Avanga vera vera vyaabaaram seiyalaam. Avanga eppavum onnaa thaan irupaanga. They might be doing different business. They always be together.

Now let us try to connect the above contrasting phrases…

Avanga vera vera vyaabaaram seiyalaam aanaa avanga eppavum onnaa thaan irupaanga. They might do different business, but they always be together.

 


Kirthana veetu porul ellaam vaanga eduthitta. Ava kitta panam illa. Kirthana picked all the household things. She doesn’t have money.

Now let us try to connect the main idea with the contrasting phrase…

Kirthana veetu porul ellam vaanga eduthittu, aanaa ava kitta panam illa. Kirthana has picked all the household things but she doesn’t have money.
Ava thanoda purse-a kondu vandhaa. Ippo avaloda purse-a kaanom. She bought her purse. Her purse is now missing.
Now let us try to connect the main idea with the contrasting phrase…
Ava thanoda purse-a kondu vandhaa, aanaa ippo adhai kaanom. She brought her purse, but now it is missing.

 

1b. ‘Whereas’ statements:


Now let us try to connect sentences where but is replaced with a ‘whereas’

Nancy-um Karthik-um asaivam saapiduvaanga, aanaa Priya saivam. Nancy and Karthik eat meat, whereas Priya is a vegan.

Now let us try to connect another sentence where but is replaced with a ‘whereas’

Nancy-um Karthik-um asaiva unavu vaanginaanga, aanaa Priya French fries vaanginaa. Nancy and Karthik bought non vegen dishes, whereas Priya bought French fries.

 


Raj, nee enna grade eduthirukke? Raj, what grade have you scored?.
Nee sariya padikave illa . You did not learn well.
Nee ellam padichen-u sonne, aanaa unnoda badhil edhuvum sariyaa illa. You said that you learnt everything, but not any your answers is right.

Now let us try to connect another sentences where but is replaced with a ‘whereas’

Kavin romba nalla kanakku poduraan, aanaa nee eppavum kanakku paadathle tholvi adaiyure/ fail aagure. Kavin does so good in maths, whereas you always fail in Maths.

 
 

2. But/ Except sentences:


Rakesh niraya thuridha unavu saapiduvaan. Rakesh eats a lot of fast food.
Avanoda doctor, idhu ellam saapida koodaadhu-nu sonnaar. His doctor has advised not to eat these things.

Now let us try to connect another sentences where but is replaced with a ‘whereas’

Junk food thavira, matra ella saapilaam-nu avanoda doctor sonnar. His doctor advise him to eat everything, but/except junk food.
Aana avan, arokiyamaana saapaatai thavira, matra ellam saapiduraan. But he eats everything, but/except healthy food.

 


Vinay-um avanoda nanbargal kudumbam-um Greece-kku ponaanga. Vinay and his friend’s family went to Greece.
Vimaana nilayathle, avangaloda pettigal-ukaaga kaathittu irundhaanga. At the airport, they waited for their luggage.

Now let us try to connect another sentences where but is replaced with a ‘except’

Vinay thavira, matra ellaarukkum avangaloda pettigal kidachidhu. Everybody got their luggage, except Vinay.
Vinay-oda petti-a thavira, matra ellaaroda pettigalum irundhichi. Everyone’s luggage was there, except Vinay’s luggage.

 

2. ‘But for’ or If statements:

But for is used to introduce the reason why something didn’t happen:

Rathnaa-um Radhika-um nallaa padichu podhu arivu poti-le jeyichitaanga. Rathna and Raadhika prepared well and won the general knowledge quiz.

Now let us try using but for instead of the whereas. Whereas/ but for is Illaama in Tamil.

Avanga illaama, namma palli poti-le thorththu poi-irukkum. But for them, our school would have lost the quiz competition.
Indha ponnunga illaama, indha school niraya potigal-e thorthu-irukkum. But for these girls, The school would have lost many competions.

 


Sruthi-kitta otunar urimam/driving license illa, aana ava neththu vandi ottitu ponaa. Sruthi doesn’t have a driver’s license, but she drove a car yesterday.
Vegamaa poi, vera oru vandi mele modhitaa. She drove fast and dashed upon another car.

Now let us try using but for instead of the whereas. Whereas/ but for is Illaama in Tamil.

Nalla brakes illanaa avalukku romba kaayapattu-irukkum. But for the good brakes, she would have been badly hurt .
Brakes nalla irundhadhaale, ava thappichaa. She was saved, because the brakes were good.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. aanaa:
_________________________________________________________

2. illaama:
_________________________________________________________

3. thavira:
_________________________________________________________

4. kadai vechi:
_________________________________________________________

5. podhu arivu:
_________________________________________________________

6. kaaya pattu:
_________________________________________________________

7. paduththu thoongu:
_________________________________________________________

8. thappi :
_________________________________________________________

9. thuridha unavu:
_________________________________________________________

10. matra ellam:
_________________________________________________________

11. thorththu poi:
_________________________________________________________

12. kaanom:
_________________________________________________________

13. vyaabaaram:
_________________________________________________________

14. onnaa irukkaanga:
_________________________________________________________

15. aarokiamaana:
_________________________________________________________

16. otunar urimam :
_________________________________________________________

17. saapida koodaadhu:
_________________________________________________________

18. asaivam:
_________________________________________________________

19. saivam:
_________________________________________________________

20. potigal:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Kadai vechi-irupadhu – to own a shop
vyaabaaram – business
Onnaa – to be one, together
Panam – money
Kaanom/ kaanavilai – not to be found/ lost
Saivam – vegetarian
Asaivam – non-vegetarian
Thuridha unavu – fast food
Saapida koodadhu – should not eat
Thavira – except
Matra ellam – all other
Aarokiamaana – healthy
Podhu arivu – general knowledge
Poti – competition
Thorththu po – to fail or lose
Otunar urimam – driver’s license
Modhi – dash
Kaayam – wound
Kaayam pattu – to be wounded
Thappi – escape

 

Translate:


1. She washed the clothes but forgot to dry them.

2. He bought me some flowers whereas she bought chocolates.

3. I love eating but don’t like cooking.

4. But for the boys, the school would be silent.

5. Those are new boxes but they look old.

6. Everyone, but him, went to the movie.

7. He sleeps but doesn’t learn.

8. She was beautiful, but was not dutiful.

9. He liked her, but did not marry her.

10. They eat cheese, but they don’t drink milk.

11. But for my grandma, my house would be dirty.

12. He asked for a pen, but she gave him a pencil.

13. The chef prepares everything, but the ice-cream.

 

Try to describe the picture:

Conjunctions Lesson 56

Lesson 56

  1. Conjunctions – And
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 56 Conjunctions – Part 1 ( AND)

Today we are going to see about conjunctions in Tamil.

A conjunction joins words or groups of words in a sentence.

• I ate lunch with Kate and Derma.
• Because it is rainy today, the trip is canceled.
• She didn’t press the bell, but I did.

In English, we have the and, if , even, thought, but, so…and many more. Today we will see how to combine sentences by using conjunctions.

 

For ‘And’ – Um/ -ittu/ using a past participle

First let us see the Tamil conjunction equivalent to the ‘And’ in English

 

Case

And… When we connect

In Spoken Tamil We use..

1 a. Noun + Noun
b. Adjective + Adjective
c. Phrase + Phrase
We add –um inbetween the nouns, adjectives or phrases respectively.
2 Verb + Verb First verb becomes a past participle of the verb. (vandhu-, vechi-/ thoongi-/ samachi- )
3 Clause + clause First verb becomes a present participle of the verb. i.e., we add –ittu to the first verb

 

Examples

1 a. Connecting two nouns:


Naan-um Amma-um neththu kadaikku ponom. I and my mother went to the shop.
Amma konjam kaaigalai-um pazhangal-um vaanginaanga . Mom bought some vegetables and fruits.
Ange kadail-e, Kumar maama-a paarthom. There at the shop, we saw uncle Kumar.
Kumar maama, enga amma-oda thambi. Amma-um Maama-um theyaiyaana ellam vaanginaanga. Kumar uncle is our mom’s brother. Mom and Uncles bought everything necessary.
En maama enakku oru mittai-yum, oru periya dharboosani-um vaangi-thandaar. My uncle bought me a chocolate and a big water melon.

 


Enakku Indhiya unavugal-a chappati-um saadhamum pidikkum. . In Indian foods, I love roti and rice.
Inaikku, amma enakku pidicha roti/ chappaathi senjirukaanga . Today, mom has made my favorite roti.
Roti-um, urulai kizhangum enakku pidikkum. I like roti and potatoes.
Appakkum thangachikkum kooda idhu romba pidikkum. Even dad and little sister likes it.
Amma Roti/ chappaathi kooda urulai masiyal, paruppu saambhar, chutney-um senjirukaanga. Mom has made potato mash, lentil curry and sauce with it.
Inaikku enakku oru nalla virundhu thaan. Today it’s going to be a great feast.

 

1 b. Connecting two adjectives:


Prem: Priya, enakku unnai romba pidichirukku. Idhu unakkaaga vaanginen. Priya, I like you very much. I bought this for you.
Priya: Romba nandri. Indha pookkal romba azhagaa, manamaa irukku . Thankyou. These flowers are very beautiful and sweet smelling.
Aanaa, ennai ungalukku edhanaale pidichirukku? But, tell me why you like me!
Prem: Nee romba azhagaavum, anbaavum iruppadhaale enakku unnai pidich-irukku. I like you because you are beautiful and loving.
Priya: Romba nandri. Neenga-lum romba poruppaavum anbaavum irukeenga. Enakkum ungalai pidichirukku . Thankyou. You too are loving and dutiful. I too like you.

 


Konjam neram munnaadi indha room romba azhukka iruttaa irundhadhu. Sometime back, this room was very dark and dirty.
Rani-um Sumitha-um indha arai-ya suththam senjirukkaanga. Rani and Sumitha has cleaned this room.
Munnaadi, ulaga urandai, buththagam, poo thotti, ellam keezhe kidandhadhu . Some time ago, the globe, books and the flower pots were on the floor.
Ippo andha ulaga urundaium, poo thottigal-um maadathukku mele irukku. And now the globe and flower vases are on the cupboard shelf.
Ippo nalla suththamaa, velichamaa irukku . Now it is really clean and bright.
Avanga rendu perum romba ozhungaa vegamaa velai senjirukkaanga . They both have really done the job, quickly and neatly.

 

1 c. Connecting two phrases:


Raj, kalloori valaagathe suththam seiraan. Raj is cleaning the college campus.
Rachel, kalloori valaagathe suththam seiraa . Rachel is cleaning the college campus.
Kavitha, kalloori valaagathe suththam seiraan. Kavitha, is cleaning the college campus.
Instead of using three different sentences for describing the same action done by different people, we can combine then into one compound sentence using a ‘um’. .i.e., combine the phrases.
Raj, Rachel, Kavitha, moonu perum, kalloori valaagathe suththam seiraanga. Raj, Rachel and Kavitha, all three are cleaning the college campus.

 


Shekar oru pannai-kku sondhakaaran. Shekhar is the owner of a farm.
Avaroda pannai-le rendu maadugal irukku. There are two cows in his farm.
Ange konjam aadugal irukku. There are some ducks.
Kozhigalum Vaathugalum irukku. Chicken and ducks too.
Oru ilam gudhirai kooda irukku . There is a young horse too.
Now, let’s try combining these into one sentence.
Shekar-oda pannai-le, rendu maadugal-um, konjam aadugal-um, oru sila kozhi-um, vaathu-um, oru ilam gudhirai-um irukku . There are two cows, a few goats, a few chickens and ducks and also a young horse in his farm.

 

2. Connecting two clauses:


Rathna dhinamum thanoda diary ezhudhuvaanga. Rathna writes her diary everyday.
Adhukku aprama adha padichi paarpaanga. Then she would read it.
Adhukku apramaa thonguvaanga. Then after that, she goes to sleep.
Sometine we would want to say all these three sentences in one compound sentences. When we want to combine two verbs in a sentence we add ‘ –ittu’ after the first verb, like a suffix.
Rathna dhinanum thannoda diary-a ezhudhittu, adha padichittu thoonguvaanga. Rathna writes her diary and goes to sleep after reading it.

 


En nanbar oru poruppulla kanavar. My friend is a dutiful husband..
Avar veetule irundhu thannoda kudumbath-e paathukiraar. He stays home and takes care of his family.
Kaalaile manaivi velaikku ponadhum, veeta suththam paduthittu, paathiram ellam kazhuvuvaar. As soon as his wife goes out to work, every morning, he would clean the house and wash all the vessels.
Samayal samachittu, saapittittu oivu eduppaar. He cooks and takes rest
Pillainga vandhadhum thirumbavum velai thaan . And as soon the kids arrive, its work again.

 

3. Connecting two verbs:


When we add two verbs, usually the first verb turns to a past participle, and the second verb follows it.

Enakku dhinamum niraya velai irukku. I have a lot of work.
Kaalaile pillaingale pallikku kilappi anupuven. In the morning, I get the kids ready and send them to school.
Aprama paathirangale kazhuvi thodachi adukkuven. Then I wash and dry the vessels.
Rendu padukkaikale thatti suththam pannuven. Then I dust and make both the beds.
Azhukku thunigale thuvachi kaayapoduven.. I would wash and dry the clothes.
Kizhinja thunigale thechchi veippen. I mend some old clothes.
Kannaadi porul ellam suththamaa thodachi kaaya veippen. I will wipe and dry the glass utensils at home.

 


Rosie, Vicky, Naanum thuridha unavu kadai-kku poi-vandhom. Rosie, Vicky and I had been to the back from a fast food shop.
Engalukku pidicha burger vangittu jannal pakathle oru table-la utkaarndhom. We bought our favorite burgers and sat on a table beside the window.
Rosie, avalukku pidicha veg burger vaangi saapitaa. Rosie bought her favorite burger and ate.
Naan-um Vicky-um chicken burger vaangi saapitom. Vicky and I bought chicken burgers and ste.
Neenga indha maadhiri, kadaikku poi, burger vaangi saaptu irukeengala? . Have you gone to the restaurant like this and eaten burgers?

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. Naan-um nee-um:
_________________________________________________________

2. Poi-vandhu:
_________________________________________________________

3. Padichittu saapiduraan:
_________________________________________________________

4. Kilappi anuppu:
_________________________________________________________

5. vaangi saapidu:
_________________________________________________________

6. kaaya podu:
_________________________________________________________

7. paduththu thoongu:
_________________________________________________________

8. thuridha unavu :
_________________________________________________________

9. poruppu:
_________________________________________________________

10. eduththu kudu:
_________________________________________________________

 

Translate:


1. She washed and dried the shirt.

2. He bought me some flowers and chocolates.

3. I have to shower and dress up.

4. Did she wipe the window and clean the table top.

5. Those are new boxes and some wrappers.

6. I want a water bottle and a plate.

7. The golden box is full of biscuits and chocolates.

8. He is buying a gift for his wife.

9. The boy and the girl look beautiful

10. Gita, Preeta and John are dancing tonight.

11. My grandmother loves her bamboo hat and her couch very much.

12. Give him some coffee and biscuits.

13. The children are wearing school uniform.

14. Put on your rain-coat.

15. I have broken the vase and the pot too.

16. I am going to the wedding and then going to the office.

 

Try to describe the picture:

Tenses – Present Perfect – Aachu Lesson 55

Lesson 55

  1. Aachaa? / Aachu – Tenses (Perfect form)
  2. Pudhu Vaarthaigal
  3. Exercises

 

Lesson 55 When? – Aachaa?/ Aachu! (Present Perfect)

In Tamil, in the Present perfect form, we use the word ‘Aacha?’ and ‘Aachu’ inorder to ask if the work had been done. And these words do not have conjugation related to the subject.

For example:
Nee unnoda velai-a mudich-aachaa? Have you finished your homework?
Aamaa. Naan ennoda velei-a mudich-aachu/ mudichitten. Yes. I have finished my work.

This ia a way of spoken form that the natives use, when they mean anything in the present perfect form. Today let us see more about this, with a few examples.

 

Perfect form of the tenses

We are going to see the perfect form in all the three tenses. Try framing more by yourself.

 

Present Perfect Question

Present Perfect Answer

How do you question the others?
How you answer the question?
Naan – I (Sing.) First person
Nee padich-aachaa? Naan padich-aachu
Nee ezhudhi-aachaa? Naan ezhudhi- aachu
Nee saapit-aachaa? Naan saapit- aachu
Nee andha velai-a mudich-aachaa? Naan andha velai-a mudich- aachu
Naanga – We (Plu.) First person
Neenga kilambi-aachaa? Naanga kilambi-aachu
Neenga utkaarndh-aachaa? Naanga utkaarndh-aachu
Neenga pesi-aachaa? Naanga pesi-aachu
Neenga poi serndh-aachaa? Naanga vandhu serndh-aachu
Nee & Neenga – You ( Sing. And Plu.) Second person
Nee indha paadathte padich-aachu
Neenga indha velai-a neththe senju mudich-aachu.
We don’t ask question about us in this tense… We usually say such statements when we reassure the person
about something that has been done.
It also happens in cases where we remind the
person of something done.
Avan – He (informal) Third person
Avan padich-aachaa? Avan padich-aachu
Avan ezhudhi-aachaa? Avan ezhudhi- aachu
Avan saapit-aachaa? Avan saapit- aachu
Avan andha velai-a mudich-aachaa? Avan andha velai-a mudich- aachu
Avar – He (formal)Third person
Avar padich-aachaa? Avar padich-aachu
Avar ezhudhi-aachaa? Avar ezhudhi- aachu
Avar saapit-aachaa? Avar saapit- aachu
Avar andha velai-a mudich-aachaa? Avar andha velai-a mudich- aachu
Aval – She (Sing.) informal Third person
Ava padich-aachaa? Ava padich-aachu
Ava ezhudhi-aachaa? Ava ezhudhi- aachu
Ava saapit-aachaa? Ava saapit- aachu
Ava andha velai-a mudich-aachaa? Ava andha velai-a mudich- aachu
Avanga – She (Sing.) formal Third person
Avanga padich-aachaa? Avanga padich-aachu
Avanga ezhudhi-aachaa? Avanga ezhudhi- aachu
Avanga saapit-aachaa? Avanga saapit- aachu
Avanga andha velai-a mudich-aachaa? Avanga andha velai-a mudich- aachu
Avanga – They (Plu.) Third person
Avanga padich-aachaa? Avanga padich-aachu
Avanga ezhudhi-aachaa? Avanga ezhudhi- aachu
Avanga saapit-aachaa? Avanga saapit- aachu
Avanga andha velai-a mudich-aachaa? Avanga andha velai-a mudich- aachu
Adhu/Idhu – IT Third person
Adhu saapit-aachaa? Adhu saapit-aachu
Adhu thoongi-aachaa? Adhu thoongi-aachu
Adhu vandh-aachaa? Adhu vandh-aachu
Adhu poi-serndhaachaa? Adhu poi-serndhaachu

 

Examples of the Perfect form:

To describe the completion of an action in the near past.


Cake seiya, Nee Maavai alandhu eduth-aacha? Have you measured the flour for the cake?
Aamaa. Alandhu eduthaachu. Yes. I’ve measured it.
Adhule nee paalai-um muttai-um serth-aachaa?. Have you added milk and eggs to it?
Ippo, naan paalai-um muttaium, adhule serth-aachu. Yes. Now, I have.
Amma, neenga sonna maadhiriye naan senjaacha, paarunga? Mom, see if I have done it the way you said?

 

En amma-oda samaiyal puththagathai paarthu naan inaikku oru dish samaikiren. I’m making a dish from my Mom’s recipe book.
Naan Kaaigal-e porich-aachu,.. I have fried the vegetables.
Adhukku apramaa, ellaa masala serthu-aachu.. After that, I have added all the spices..
Ippo naan samichi-mudich-aachu. And now, I have finished cooking.

 


Mr. Karthik, neenga ella velai-um senjaacha? Mr. Karthik, have you finished all the work?
Aamaa, sir. Ellam mudichaachu. Yes sir. Everything has been done.
Andhe mails ellam anuppiyaacha? Have you sent all the mails?
Aamaa, sir. Ellam anuppiyaachu. Yes sir. All mails have been sent.
Romba nalladhu. Ungaloda sambala kaasolai idho! Very good! Here is your pay cheque.

 

Anu, neenga ella samaiyal mudichaachaa? Anu, have you finished all the cooking.
Unga pillainga pallli-kku poi-aachaa? Have your children gone to school?
Aamaa. Samayal mudichaachu. Pasangalum poi-aachaa. Yes. The cooking is done and the kids have gone.
Preetha, Neenga unga shopping mudich-aachaa?. Preetha, have you finished your shopping?
Aamaa. Naan neththe shopping mudich-aachu. Yes. I have finished it, yesterday.


 

Reena, un annan Ravi, thoongiyaachaa, paaru! Reena, see if you brother Ravi has slept?
Illa. Avan innum thoongale. No. He has not yet slept.
Unnoda thangachi thoongiyaacha, sollu! Tell me, if your little sister has slept.
Aamaa, thangachi thoongiyaachu. Yes, little sister has slept.
Sari, neeyum poi thoongu. Ok. You too go to bed.

 


Amma, Amma, vera kadhai padikkalaamaa? Mom, mom, shall we read another story?
Akka, Ammakku enna aachu? Hey sister, what has happened to Mom?
Praveen , amma thoongiyaachu. Paavam, Amma-kku niraya velai. Avanga asathiyile thoongittaanga. Praveen, Mom has slept. Poor Mom. She must be very tired after all the works.
Aamaa. Amma thoongiyaachu ! Yes, Mom has slept.

 

Sumi, naai-kku saapaadu pottaachaa? Sumi, have you given food to the dog?
Aamaa. Saapaadu pottaachu. Naai-um saapitaachu. Yes. I have given him food. And he has eaten it.
Ippo, poonai-kkum saapaadu pottaachu. Now, I have given food to the cat too.
Hey, Polly! Indhaa! Saapidu. Hey Polly, Here! Eat!
Amma, neenga sonnadha naan senj-aachu. Mom, I’ve done what you asked of me.

 


Naanga beach-kku porom. We are going to the beach.
Naanga kaalai-liye nerathoda kilambitom. We started early on time.
Engalukku thevaiyaana ellathaiyum eduththaachu. We have taken everything that we need.
Car-la gas pottaachu? We’ve filled gas in the car.
Idhukku apram enna? Kondaattam thaan. And what’s next? Just Enjoyment!

 


 

Try to say the following in Tamil. Try using the words ‘Aachaa?’ and ‘Aachu’.


1. Has Raju done his homework?

2. Yes. He has finished his homework.

3. The baby has slept.

4. Has Kavitha gone to the market?

5. John has bought today’s newsapaper.

6. Have they eaten the dinner?

7. I have found the lost coin.

8. Has mom cooked the vegetables?

9. The clock has struck three.

10. Has Grandma washed the plates?

11. No. She hasn’t washed the plates.

12. Rasi has got ready to go for the party.

 

Try to frame sentences with the given verbs in the present perfect tense:

1. Po:
__________________________________________

2. Vaa:
_________________________________________

3. Thoongu:
_____________________________________

4. Vettu:
________________________________________

5. Ezhudhu:
________________________________________

6. Pesu:
_________________________________________

7. Saapidu:
______________________________________

8. Kudi:
__________________________________________

9. Thallu:
________________________________________

10. Vilayaadu:
____________________________________

11. Vaangu:
______________________________________

12. Padi :
________________________________________

13. Otu :
_____________________________________

 

Describe the picture, using the prepositions and tenses:

Frame questions and suitable answers using the words ‘Aachaa? and ’Aachu’