Modal Auxiliary 1 Lesson 63

Lesson 63

  1. Modal Auxiliary verbs -1
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 63 Modal Auxiliary Verbs Part 1

This lesson is about the modal auxiliaries in Tamil. In Tamil, we do not find many modals, but they are used in such a way that you can bring out the right meaning on the sentence, and a person can express the right stress in the sentences.

All modal verbs are auxiliary verbs, which means they can only be used with a main verb. Modal verbs cannot be a main verb. InEnglish,the modals such as can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, and would, do not change form for different subjects.

Example1:
1. I can walk fast.
John can walk fast.
Polly can walk fast.
They can fast.

Example2: The same happens with negations as well.
2. You shouldn’tgo to the movie.
I shouldn’t see him.
Heshould’nt go to work.
They shouldn’t go to the party.

Note: The modal auxiliaries ‘can’ and ‘should’ doesn’t conjugate, but remains the same for all the different subjects.

This is the same with Tamil too. We will see this in the examples.

1a. Can/ Could – Mudiyum

Can/ Could denotes ability, permission and capacity.
Mudiyum is the Tamil word for Can. Mudiyaadhu is the negation.
Let us see a table of the different forms of Mudiyum – Can

 

Modal form

Past Tense

Present Tense

Future/ Habitual Tense

Can/ Could Mudinjidhu Mudiyidhu Mudiyum
Negation form Can’t/ Couldn’t Mudiyale Mudiyale Mudiyaadhu
In Tamil we use –aala/-kku to the subject in the sentence and finish the sentence with ‘mudiyum’, which means the ‘can’.

 

Doctor : Sollunga, Mr. Anubhav, udambueppadiirukku. Tell me, Mr. Anubhav. How is your health?

Mr. Anubhav: Aruvaisigichchai/ Surgery-kkumunnaadi, en-ale nadakkamudiyale. Rombamuttyvaliirundhichu. Before the surgery, I couldn’t walk. I had knee pain.

Aanaa, ippo, aruvaisigichchai-kkupiragu, en-aalenallanadakkamudiyidhu. But now, after the surgery, I can walk well.

Mundhi, en-aalenallaodamudinjidhu.Aanaa, ippoodamudiyale. Earlier, I could run. But now I can’t run.

Doctor : Kavalaipadaatheenga. Konjamnaalleungal-aaleodakoodamudiyum. Don’t worry. In sometime, you could run.


 

1b. Can/ Could – Mudiyum

Karthikorunallaisai-amaippaalar. Karthik is a very good music composer.

Avar-ale rombanallaapaada-ummudiyum. He can also sing really well.

Aanaa, inaikkuavarukkurombathondaivali. Avar-aaleippokonjamkoodapaadamudiyale. But today, he has a sore throat. He can’t sing at all.

Inaikkuorukatcheriirukku.Avar-ale paadamudiyuma? There is a concert today. Will he be able to sing?

Avar-aalenichchayamaapaadamudiyaadhu! Neengaennaninaikireenga? He won’t be able to sing for sure. What do you think?


 

Try Translating A Few Sentences:

  1. Anu can speak English really well.
  2. Arjun can participate in the competition.
  3. I couldn’t run fast two years back.
  4. Nethra can walk long distances.
  5. Can you sing this song?
  6. Raju can’t eat this much.a

1c. Could – Mudiyum

Could is used in sentences to

  1. Make a polite request.
  2. Make a polite offer.

Mudiyum is the Tamil word for Could as well. Mudiyaadhu is the negation.

Ennodaammakkuinaikkuudambusariyilla. My mom is not feeling well, today.

Naanavangalukkueppadiudhaviseiyamudiyum? How could I help her?

En-aaleavangalukkusoodaana coffee potutharamudiyum. I could make some hot coffee for her.

En-aalethuvachchathunigalekaayapodamudiyum. I could hang the washed clothes to dry.

En-aaleveetaisuththamseiyamudiyum. I could clean the house.


 

Try Translating A Few Sentences:

  1. Could I go now?
  2. Could I give you a lift?
  3. I could carry that for you.
  4. Could you lend me a pen, please?

 

2a. Should/ Have to – ….+num

Should/ Have to expresses an opinion, willingness and also a sense of duty.
In Tamil, the should/ have to is the verb with the +vendum added to it as a suffix.
Poga+vendum = pogavendum – poganum
Let us take the verb ‘write’ – Ezhudhu

Modal Form

Modal In Tamil

Spoken Form

Should Write Should – Vendum Ezhudha+vendum = Ezhudhanum
Negation form Shouldn’t write Should not – koodaadhu Ezhudha+koodaadhu = Ezhudhakoodaadhu
Should have written Should have – past participle of the verb + irukka Ezhudhi+irukka+vendum = Ezhudhi-irukkanum
Should not have written Shouldn’t have – past participle of the verb +irukka+ koodaadhu Ezhudhi+irukka+koodaadhu = Ezhudhi-irukkanum

 

  1. You should write the maths lesson. Nee kanakkupaadamezhudhavendum/ ezhudhanum
  2. You shouldn’t write the letter. Nee kadeedhamezhudhakoodaadhu
  3. You should have written a poem. Nee orukavidhaiezhudhi-irukkavendum/ ezhudhi-irukkanum
  4. You shouldn’t have written this answer. Nee indhabadhilezhudhi-irukkakoodaadhu

 

‘Should’ and ‘Have to’ are interchangeable. So in Tamil, we always use verb+num in both the patterns.

Example1:

Teacher : Leela, Nee unnodathervukkunallapadikkanum. Leela, you should study well for your exams.

Leela : Indhapaadampadikkanuma, teacher. Teacher! Should I study this lesson too?

Teacher : Aamaa. Nee naalupadangalpadikkanum. Ella badhil-um nallapadikkanum. Yes. You have to learn four lessons. You should learn all the answers well.

Leela : Indhakelvi-kkubadhilsariyaa, teacher. Teacher! Is the answer to this question, right?

Teacher : Illa Leela. Indhabadhilezhudhakoodaadhu. Idhuthappu. No Leela. You shouldn’t write this as the answer. This is wrong.

Indhakelvi-kku, nee andhabadhil-a thaanezhudhanum. You should write that as answer .

Leela : Aamaa. Naanindhabadhilthaanezhudhi-irukkanum. Yes. I should have written this answer.

Teacher : Nee unnodatheruvanallaezhudhanum. Appounakkusirandhamaanaviparisukidaikkum. Yes. You have to write your exams well, and only then you will get the best student award.


 

Example2:

 


Rajesh : Sanghavi, Pranaav! Indha project-a naamanallaseiyanum. Sanghavi, Pranav! We have to do this project really well.

Sanghavi : Indhamurai, Karthik-oda teamjeyikkakoodaadhu. Karthik’s team shouldn’t win,this time.

Pranaav : Aamaa. Project mudikiravarainaamasorvaagakoodaathu. Yes. We should not feel tired until we finish the project.

Rajesh : Neraththaiveenaakazhikkakoodaadhu. Sariyaathittampottuseiyanum. We shouldn’t waste our time. We should plan well.

Pranaav: : Ponamuraimaadhiri, kadaisinimishavelaikoodaadhu. There shouldn’t be any last minute job, like the previous time.

Sanghavi : Indhamurai, naamathaan project-a mudhalemudikkanum. This time, we should be first to finish the project.

 

Try Translating A Few Sentences:

  1. I should obey my elders.
  2. You should’t gothere now.
  3. Sita should study tonight.
  4. We should always speak the truth.
  5. He has to work hard to support his family.
  6. She should come home on time.
  7. Raju shouldn’t eat sweets.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. Munnaadi:
_________________________________________________________

2. Aruvaisigichchai:
_________________________________________________________

3. Mutty:
_________________________________________________________

4. Vali:
_________________________________________________________

5. Thondai:
_________________________________________________________

6. Isa-amaipaalar:
_________________________________________________________

7. Katcheri:
_________________________________________________________

8. Ninaikiraan:
_________________________________________________________

9. Pechchupotti:
_________________________________________________________

10. Soodaana:
_________________________________________________________

11. Coffee Potutharen:
_________________________________________________________

12. Thittampodu:
_________________________________________________________

13. Kadaisi:
_________________________________________________________

14. Thuvai:
_________________________________________________________

15. Kaayapoduven:
_________________________________________________________

16. Thappu :
_________________________________________________________

17. Veenaakazhikkaakoodadhu:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Aruvaisigichchai – surgery/ operation
Munnaadi – earlier
Muttyvali – knee pain
Piragu – afterwards
Mundhi – earlier
Isaiamaippaalar – music composer
Thondaivali – throat pain/ sore throat
Katcheri – concert
Nichchayamaa – definitely
Ninai+ – think
Soodaana – hot (adj.)
Coffee podu – make coffee
Thuvachchathuni – washed clothes
Kaayapodu – let it to dry/ hanging clothes to dry
Kelvi – Question
Badhil – Answer
Thappu – Wrong/ incorrect
Murai – Chance
Mudikiravarai – Until finishing
Sorvaaga – To become tired/ weary
Veenaa – Waste
Veenaakazhikka – To waste time
Thittam – Plan
Thittampodu – To make plans
Kadaisi – Last
Nimisham – minute

 

Translate:

  1. He can speak four languages.
  2. She can’t swim.
  3. It’s dark. He can’t see.
  4. I can’t watch this movie. There is no power.
  5. Can you help me?
  6. No. He can’t carry this. It’s heavy.
  7. I can speak Hindi, but I can’t write.
  8. He should bring that too. Shouldn’t he?
  9. They can’t play outside, but they can sit quietly.
  10. He shouldn’t wear white. He has to wear black.
  11. Dad shouldn’t have come there. He should have gone to the party.
  12. He can attend the wedding. But his wife can’t.
  13. I can’t do this. Could you help me?

 

Try To Describe The Picture:

Conjunctions – Correlative Conjunctions 2 Lesson 62

Lesson 62

  1. Conjunctions
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 62 Conjunctions – Part 6 (Correlative Conjunctions)

Correlative conjunctions are sort of like tag-team conjunctions.

They come in pairs, and you have to use both of them in different places in a sentence to make them work.

They get their name from the fact that they work together (co-) and relate one sentence element to another.

Correlative conjunctions include pairs such as “both/and,” “either/or,” “neither/nor,” “not/but” and “not only/but also.”
So now let us see how to say such correlative conjunctions in Tamil.

In today’s lesson we will be dealing

  1. Or
  2. Either/ or
  3. Neither nor

Either…or and neither…nor are correlative conjunctions. They are used to introduce alternatives.

Examples:

1.a. Usage of ‘or’

 

While we speak a sentence that has ‘or’, it is a choice between two things. So in Tamil we add ‘-aa’ to both the choices, be it nouns or verbs.

Waiter : Vanakkam. Sollunga sir. Ungalukku enna venum Good evening sir. Tell me. What do you want?
Prakash : Enakku coffee venum I need some coffee.
Waiter : Sari. Cold coffee-a, special coffee-a? Edhu venum? Ok.Do you want cold coffee or special coffee?
Prakash : Special coffee venum. Saapida enna irukku?.I want a special coffee. What is there to eat?
Waiter : Biriyaani-um fried rice-um irukku. Ungalukku Biriyaani –a fried rice-a? Edhu venum? There is Biriyaani and fried rice. Which one do you want? Biriyaani or fried rice.?
Prakash : Enakku chicken biriyaani venum. I want a chicken biriyaani.
Waiter : Sir, unga bill? Panamaa? Card-a? Sir, about your bill. Is it cash or card?


 

1.b. Usage of ‘Or’

 

While we speak a sentence that has ‘or’, it is a choice between two things. So in Tamil we add ‘-aa’ to both the choices, be it nouns or verbs.

Meena: Kavitha, eppadi irukke? Unakku enna kuzhandhai? Aan kuzhandhaiyaa, pen kuzhandhaiyaa? Hello Kavitha. How are you? Is it a boy or a girl?
Kavitha: Aan kuzhandhai. Unakku enna? Aanaa? Pennaa? A boy baby. What about you? Boy or a girl?
Meena: Enakku, pen kuzhandhai.It is a girl
Sunitha: Hello Kavitha, unakku ippo enna maasam? Ezhaa? Ettaa? Hey Kavitha, which month is it, for you? Seven or Eight
Meena: Kavitha-vukku idhu onbadhaavadhu maasam. It is the ninth month for her.

Use –a for the or:

  1. What do you like? Coffee or Tea.
  2. Are you going to US or UK?
  3. When is dad coming? Today or tomorrow?
  4. Are you coming to the movies or not?
  5. Do you like a pineapple juice or an apple juice.

 

2a. Usage of Either/ Or

Either / or – used in a sentence in the affirmative sense when referring to a choice between two possibilities. In Tamil, we add the word –illana, when we are framing a either/ or sentence.

Let us try to join to sentences.

Avan ippo saapiduvan.Avan apramaa saapiduvan. Avanoda viruppam.

Avan ippo, illanaa apramaa aapiduvaan. Avanoda viruppam. (He will either eat it now or later. It’s his wish.)

Also you have to remember one important thing. A singular subject will have a singular verb conjugation or the same happens when it is a plural verb.

Avan Delhi-kku, illanaa Mumbai-kku povaan. (He will be going either to Delhi or Mumbai.)

Avaroda pasanga, padipaanga, illanaa vilayaaduvaanga. (His kids either study or play.)

 

Let’s see an example:

 

Teacher : Madhan, aduththa vaaram, palli pottigal irukku..Nee drawing-la illanaa painting-la kalandhukkol.There are school competitions next week. Take part either in drawing or in painting competition.
Meena : Naan kooda drawing-la illana painting-la kalandhukka poren. I am also going to take part either in drawing or painting competition.
Teacher :Illa. Meena, nee pechchu potti-la illanaa rangoli potti-la kalandhukko.No, Meena. You take part in either the oratory or the rangoli competition.

 

Now try to combine the following dialogues..

Madhan: Sari teacher. Naan drawing potti-le kalandhukkuren. Appadi illanaa, painting potti-le kalandhukkuren.Okay teacher. I will take part in the drawing competition. Or the painting competition.
Meena: Naan kooda pechu potti-le kalandhukkuren. Appadi illanaa, rangoli potti-le kalandhukkuren.I too will take part in the oratory or the rangoli competition.

 

2b. Either/ Or

 

While we use –illanaa for the either/ or sentence, there is also another way of saying either or. Follow the example here:

Brinda :Amma, inge ennoda vaguppu pasanga ennai kelli seiyiraanga.Mom, my classmates are making fun of me.
Neengal-aavadhu, appa-aavadhu inge vaanga.Either you or dad come here.

Sometime we also use ‘-aavadhu’ to the nouns in the sentence.

Idhai paththi, en teacher kitta-aavaadhu, en Principal kitta-aavadhu sollunga.. Please report this either to the teacher or to the Principal.
Amma: Brinda enna pratchanai? Naanum appa-um velai-la irukkom.What is the problem? I and dad are at work.

The sentence below is one way of saying –illana for the either /or. Try using –aavadhu and frame the sentence again.Use, -aavadhu and frame the sentence below:

Naan, thaathaa illanaa paati kitta soldren. Avanga varuvaanga.


 

Use ‘illana ‘ or ‘-aavadhu’ to frame these either/ or sentences.

  1. Either my father or my mother will come to the meeting.
  2. Suren will sleep either on the mat or the bed.
  3. My neighbours either listen to music or watch tv the whole day.
  4. Either Avinash or Ahalya has to go to the market
  5. He must go work either in a hotel or in a restaurant.
  6. You should take either swimming classes or dance classes.

Use ‘illana ‘ or ‘-aavadhu’ and frame some sentences for this picture.

 

3a. Usage of neither/nor

 

Neither / nor – used in a sentence in the negative sense when you want to say that two or more things

  1. That did not/ will not happen.
  2. That is/ was not true.

We should know the negatives of all the verbs and modals as well inorder to get these neither/ nor sentences right.

Shrijan, nee enna grade edhuthu-irukke?Shrijan, what grades have you scored?
Nee sariyaa padikka-um illa, paritchai-la sariyaa ezhudha-vum illa.You neither studied well nor wrote your exams well.
Naan-o unnoda appa-o un report-la kai-ezhuththu poda maatom.Neither I nor you dad will sign your report card.
Inimel, unakku mobile-um kidaiyaadhu, video games-um kidaiyaadhu.You will neither get your mobile nor your video games.
Inimel, nee friends veetukk-o unnoda football clubkk-o poga mudiyaadhu.And hereafter, you will go neither to your friends’ house nor to your football club.

We see a lot of negation in these sentences. So one has to know more about the negatives of the verbs, inorder to get these sentences right.

Nee ozhungaa padi, illanaa boarding school-kku poganum.. Better learn well, or you will go to the boarding school.


 

3b. Usage of neither/nor

 

Neither / nor – used in a sentence in the negative sense when you want to say that two or more things

  1. That did not happen
  2. That is/ was not true

Let us see another example.
Priya :Hey, Veena-oda appa periya panakkaara-o thozhil adhibar-o illa.Hey Veena’s dad is neither a rich man nor a great businessman.
Hema :Aamaa. Avanga amma kooda Miss Universe 1970-o oru periya model-o kidaiyaadhu/ illa.Yes. Even her mom, is neither Miss Universe 1970 nor a great model.
Pratika : Appadiyaa. Appo, ava sonnadhu ellam poiyaa?? Is it? Then, is everything she told was a lie.
Hema :Idhu mattumaa! Avalukku Bharathanatyam aada-vo, Veena vaasikkavo theriyaadhu. Ellam poi!Not only this! She knows neither to dance Bharathanatyam, nor play Veena. Everything is a lie.
Priya :Idhukku munnaadi ava endha potti-kkum ponnadhum illa, endha parisum vaanginadhum illa.She hasn’t gone to any competition or has won any prize, so far.


 

Frame these neither/ nor sentences.

  1. Neither he nor she will come home tomorrow.
  2. This drink is neither cool nor refreshing.
  3. My neighbours neither listen to music nor watch tv.
  4. She will neither cry nor speak.
  5. You come or not, I am surely going to play football.

Use ‘illana ‘ or ‘-aavadhu’ and frame some sentences for this picture.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. Venum/ vendum:
_________________________________________________________

2. biriyaani:
_________________________________________________________

3. panam:
_________________________________________________________

4. illanaa:
_________________________________________________________

5. maasam:
_________________________________________________________

6. Aan kuzhandhai:
_________________________________________________________

7. Aduththa vaaram:
_________________________________________________________

8. kalandhukko:
________________________________________________________

9. pechchu potti :
_________________________________________________________

10. vaguppu:
_________________________________________________________

11. kelli seiraanga:
_________________________________________________________

12. kai-ezhuththu:
_________________________________________________________

13. panakkaarar:
_________________________________________________________

14. thozhil adhibar:
_________________________________________________________

15. Bharathanatyam:
_________________________________________________________

16. Aada theriyum:
_________________________________________________________

17. vaasikka:
_________________________________________________________

18. poi:
_________________________________________________________

19. potti:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Biriyaani – a special Indian dish
Venum/ vendum – want
Panam – money
Kuzhandhai – baby
Aan – male/ man
Penn – Female/ woman
Maasam – Month
Onbadhaavadhu – Ninth
Aduththa vaaram – next week
Potti – competition
Kalandhukko – take part/ participate
Pechchu potti – Oratory
Rangoli – An art form, made from colored powders.
Vaguppu – Class
Kelli – Bully/ make fun
Kelli sei – To make fun of
Teacher kitta – To the teacher
Pratchanai – Problem
Thozhil adhibar – Business man
Kai-ezhuththu – Signature
Panakkaarar – Rich man
Poi – Lie
Aada – To dance
Vaasikka – To play an instrument

 

Translate:

  1. He cooks dinner. Or she cooks dinner.
  2. Either he or she cooks dinner.
  3. She can have tea. Or she can have coffee.
  4. She can have either tea or coffee.
  5. He washes the clothes himself. Or he asks her to wash them.
  6. He either washes the clothes himself or asks her to wash them.

Combine the following pairs of sentences using the right conjunctions:

  1. I don’t like Stephen. I don’t like Peter.
  2. He keeps the keys himself. Or he leaves them with his wife.
  3. He did not come. He did not call.
  4. He wasn’t wearing a shirt. He wasn’t wearing a coat.
  5. He will not come here. He will not send a representative.
  6. He may attend the function. Or his wife may attend the function.
  7. Give me freedom. Or give me death.
  8. He must have done this. Or his brother must have done this.

Try to describe the picture:

Conjunctions – Correlative Conjunctions 1 Lesson 61

Lesson 61

  1. Conjunctions – Correlative Conjunctions 1
  2. Conjunctions
  3. Examples
  4. Exercises
  5. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 61 Conjunctions – Part 5 (Correlative Conjunctions)

Correlative conjunctions are sort of like tag-team conjunctions.

They come in pairs, and you have to use both of them in different places in a sentence to make them work.

They get their name from the fact that they work together (co-) and relate one sentence element to another.

Correlative conjunctions include pairs such as “both/and,” “either/or,” “neither/nor,” “not/but” and “not only/but also.”

For example:

  • Not only/but also – I’ll eat them both – not only the cheesecake but also the chocolate cake.
  • Both/and – We’ll have both the cheesecake and the chocolate cake.
  • Whether/or – I didn’t know whether you’d want the cheesecake or the chocolate cake, so I got both.
  • Either/or – I want either the cheesecake or the chocolate cake.
  • Neither/nor – Oh, you want neither the cheesecake nor the chocolate cake? No problem.
  • Not/but – I see you’re in the mood not for desserts but appetizers. I’ll help you with those, too.

So now let us see how to say such correlative conjunctions in Tamil.

Let us first start with a few.

  1. Both/ and
  2. Not only/ but also
  3. Whether / or

Examples:

1.a. Usage of both/ and as well as

 

While we add both/ and conjunction to an adjective
We need to add –um to the adjective and close the sentence with kooda, which means also

Indha kalyaana Jodi-a paarunga. Romba poruththamaa irukaanga. Look at this wedding couple. How suitable they are!
Prakash romba arivaali. Avan romba poruppaanavan. Prakash is a clever man. He is very dutiful.

Now let us try doing the above sentence using both/ and conjunction:

Prakash romba arivaali-um, poruppaanavanum kooda. Prakash is both intelligent and dutiful.
Jayanthiyum romba surusurupaanava. Aval romba kettikaari. Jayanthi is also very active. She is very smart.

Now let us try doing the above sentence using both/ and conjunction:

Jeyanthi romba suruppanaval-um, kettikaariyum kooda. Jayanthi is both active and smart.


 

1b. Both/ and

 

While we add both/ and conjunction to nouns
We have to add –um to the nouns and also the word rendum which means both.
Let’s see the example.

Kaaigal saapidurathu udambukku nalladhu. Eating vegetables is good for the body.
Meen saapidradhu udambukku nalladhu. Eating fish is also good for the body.

Now let us try to combine these two sentences.

Kaaigal-um, Meen-um, rendum udambukku nalladhu. Both vegetables and fish is good for the body.
Priya kaaigal-um meen-um rendum saapiduvaa. Priya eats both vegetables and fish.

Use –um/ rendum/ kooda:

  1. Savitha drinks both milk and coffee.
  2. Mrs. Kanchana does both the household chores and the shopping on Saturdays.

 

2a. Usage of not only/ but also

 

While we add ‘not only/ but also’ conjunction..
We should say mattum illa/ um kooda

Madhan : Amma, enakku asaiva unavu mattum thaan samaikka theriyum. Mom, I know to cook only non-vegetarian.
Aanaa, naalaikku naan asaiva unavu mattum illa, saiva unavum kooda samaikkanum. But tomorrow, I should cook not only non-vegetarian but also vegetarian.
Amma : Kavalai paddathe. Naan unakku solli tharen. Now let us try to combine these two sentences. Don’t worry. I will teach you.
Naalaikku nee, asaiva unavu mattum illa, romba nalla saiva unavum kooda samaikka pore. And tomorrow, you are going to cook not only non-vegetarian, but also vegetarian food very well.

Look at the word, ‘mattum illa’. This means ‘not only’. And the ‘kooda’ means also.

Naalaikku nee, asaiva unavu mattum illa, romba nalla saiva unavum kooda samaikka pore.And tomorrow, you are going to cook not only non-vegetarian, but also vegetarian food very well.


 

2b. Not only/ but also

 

While we add ‘not only/ but also’ conjunction..
We should say mattum illa/ -um kooda

Yamini, oru potti-la kalandhukka poraa. Yaamini is going to participate in a competition.
Adhula pangu pera, paatu paada theriyanum. Isai karuvi-um vaasikka theriyanum. To take part, one should know to sing. And to play a musical instrument.
Use, ‘mattum illa’ that means ‘not only’ , and ‘kooda’ that means also.

Adhula pangu pera, paada mattum illa, isaikaruvi vasikka-um kooda theriyanum. To take part, one, not only should know to sing, but also to play a musical instrument.
Yaminikku paatu paada theriyum. Avalukku guitar vasikka theriyum. Yaamini knows to sing. She knows to play guitar.

Use, ‘mattum illa’ that means ‘not only’ , and ‘kooda’ that means also.

Yaaminikku paatu paada mattum illa, guitar vaasikka kooda theriyum. Yamini, not only knows to sing, but she also know to play guitar.
Use mattum illa/ kooda:

  1. Dharshini not only does painting, but also acting.
  2. Suren not only ate all the food, but he also drank all the coffee.

 

3a. Usage of whether/or

 

While we add ‘whether/ or conjunction ..
We should add –a as a suffix to the nouns or verbs

Sridhar, oru nalla udal payirchi asasiriyar. Sridhar is a very good physical trainer.
Irudhi sutru oota pottikku pillaigale thervu senjittu irukkaar. selecting the kids for the final round of the running race competition.

Adding –a to the nouns

Ivanga potti-la vetri peruvaangal-a, maataangal-a paakraar. He is analyzing whether they will win or lose.
Rajeev, Sridhar-oda magan. Rajeev, is Sridhar’s son.
Avan jeyippaan-a? jeyikka maataan-a? Ellarum aaravamaa paakraanga. Everyone is eagerly waiting to see whether he wins or loses.

Everyone is eagerly waiting to see whether he wins or loses.

Avan jeyippaan-a illaiyaanu ellarum aarvamaa paakraanga. Everyone is eagerly waiting to see whether he wins or loses.


 


Priyan: Hey, Yaadhav, mazhai peiyidhu. Naan veetukku poren. Aanaalum enakku vilayada aasaiyaa irukku. Hey Yadhav, it’s raining. I am going home. But I still want to play.
Hemant: Aanaa Mazhaiyile nanaijaa kaalchal varum. Naanum veetukku poren. But we might fall sick if we get wet in the rain. I am going home.
Yaadhav: Naan kaal pandhu vilayaada poren. Neenga vilayaada vareengal-a illay-a mudivedunga. I am going to play football. You decide whether you are going to play or not.

This sentence could also be framed like this…

Hey. Neenga vareengal-o illay-o, naan inaikki kaal pandhu vilayaada thaan poren.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. Mattum illa/ um kooda:
_________________________________________________________

2. Kalyaana jodi:
_________________________________________________________

3. Poruththamaana:
_________________________________________________________

4. Surusuruppu:
_________________________________________________________

5. Rendum:
_________________________________________________________

6. Saapiduradhu:
_________________________________________________________

7. Jeyikka:
_________________________________________________________

8. Kettikaari:
_________________________________________________________

9. Arivaali:
_________________________________________________________

10. Asaiva unavu:
_________________________________________________________

11. Saiva unavu:
_________________________________________________________

12. Kavalai padaathe:
_________________________________________________________

13. Pangu peru:
_________________________________________________________

14. Isai-karuvi:
_________________________________________________________

15. Udal payirchi:
_________________________________________________________

16. Thervu sei:
_________________________________________________________

17. Aarvamaana:
_________________________________________________________

18. Kaaichal:
_________________________________________________________

19. Mudivedu:
_________________________________________________________

20. Mazhai peiyidhu:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Kalyaana Jodi – wedding couple
Poruththamaana – suitable
Poruppaana – dutiful
Arivaali – intelligent
Surusuruppaana – active
Kettikkaari – smart girl
Saapiduradhu – eating ( present participle)
Rendum – both
Asaiva unavu – Non-vegetarian food
Saiva unavu – Vegetarian food
Kavalai padaathe – Don’t worry
Potti – Contest/ competition
Pangu peru – To participate
Isai karuvi – Musical instrument
Udal payirchi – Physical training
Thervu sei – Select
Jeyikka – To win
Aarvamaana – Eager
Mazhai peiyidhu – Raining
Aasai – Liking/ desire
Kaaichal – Fever
Mudivu – Decision
Mudivedu – Decide

 

Translate:


1. She wanted that doll, and the toy.

2. He not only came here, but also ate with us.

3. I love eating both donuts and cakes.

4. The school was not only quiet, but also beautiful.

5. I sold not only the watch, but also the laptop.

6. Tell me whether you are coming or not.

7. He is not only smart but also handsome.

8. Decide whether you are going to themovies or not?

9. She was both rich and famous.

10. My neighbours eat not only meat, but also fish.

11. My mom asked whether we have have school tomorrow or not.

12. He bought both the dress and the shoes.

13. I like not only to sing, but also draw.

 

Try to describe the picture:

Conjunctions – Because & So Lesson 60

Lesson 60

  1. Conjunctions – Because & So
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 60 Conjunctions – Part 4 ( Because & So)

Because and so are usually used in a sentence that is a reply to a ‘Why’ question.

Ex:

Why is he the best student?
He is the best student because he studies a lot.
He studies a lot so he is the best student.

So WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN “SO” AND “BECAUSE”?

Use ‘because’ to express a reason:

He is the best student because he studies a lot.
(result) <———- (reason)

Use ‘so’ to express a result:

He studies a lot, so he is the best student.

(reason) ——–> (result)
Now let us see what happens in Tamil.

 

For ‘Because/ So – ennaa / -adhanaale

Ex:

1. Why is he the best student? Yen, Avan thaan sirandha maanavan?
He is the best student because he studies a lot. Avan thaan sirandha maanavan, ennaa avan romba adhigamaa padikiren.

2. Why is he the best student? Yedhanaale, Avan thaan sirandha maanavan?
He studies a lot, so he is the best student. Avan romba padippaan, adhanaale avan thaan sirandha maanavan.

 

Examples


Jeyanth-um avaroda manaivu-um eppavum padathukku povaanga. Aanaa inaikku avangaloda pasangalum vandhirukaanga. Yen?. Jeyanth and his wife usually go to the movie, but today why have his kids come along too.
Inaikku avanga ellarum padathukku vandhirukaanga, yenaa, idhu oru kuzhandhaigal padam. They all have come today, because it is a kids’ movie.
Avanga ellarum kannaadi pottu irukaanga. Edhanaale indha kannaadi potu-irukaanga? They are all wearing glasses. Why are they all wearing glasses?
Adhu oru 3D padam, adhanaale avanga ellarum andha kannaadi potu-irukaanga. That is a 3D movie, so they are wearing those glasses.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Avanga ellarum kanaadi potu-irukaanga, yenaa idhu oru 3D padam. They all are wearing these glasses because it is a 3D movie.

 


Madhu : Amma, enakku yen juram vandhichu? Mom, why am I sick?
Amma : Neththu nee mazhai-la nananjitte. Adhanaale thaan unakku juram vandhadhu. Vaa namma doctor kitta pogalaam. Yesterday, you got wet in the rain. So you have fever. Come, let’s go to the doctor.
Madhu : Aanaa, doctor kitta edhukku poganum. Enakku doctor kitta poga vendaam. But , why should we go to a doctor? I don’t want to go to the doctor.
Amma : Doctor kitta kattaayamaa poganum, yenaa, naalaikku nee pallikku poganum. Naalaikku unakku paritchai irukku. We have to go to the doctor, for sure, because you have to go to the school. Tomorrow you have an exam.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Amma : Naalaikku Nee palli-kku poganum. Unakku paritchai irukku. Adhanaale ippo doctor kitta kattaayamaa poganum. Tomorrow, you have an exam. And you have to go to the school. So you should go to the doctor now.

 


Anna, neenga yen tholaikaatchi alaivarisai-a maathitte irukeenga? Anna, why do you keep on changing the television channels?
Inaikku oru nalla padam irukku. Adhanaale adhai theduren. There is a good movie today, and so I am searching for it.
Aana, ippo yen tholaikaatchi-a anaichitteenga? But, why have you turned it off now?
Enakku andha padam kidaikkale, adhanaale naan tholaikaatchi-a anaichitten. I haven’t got it, so I turned it off.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Naan tholaikkaatchi-a anaichitten, ennaa, enakku andha padam kidaikkale. I turned off the tv, because I did not get the movie.

 


Yamini, violin vaasikka kathukkiraa, adhanaale ava dhinamum payirchi seivaa. Yaamini is practicing violin, because she is learning to play the violin.
Avaloda veetule yaarume illai, adhanaale ava romba saththamaa vaasikiraa. There is no one at home, so she is playing it loudly.
Avalukku naalaikku oru kachcheri irukku. Adhanaale ava ippo vaasichi pazhagittu irukkaa. She has a concert tomorrow. So she is practicing now.

This sentence could also be framed like this …

Ava ippo violin vaasichi pazhaguraa. Yenaa, avalukku naalaikku oru kachcheri irukku. She is practicing the violin, because she has a concert tomorrow.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. edhanaale:
_________________________________________________________

2. idhanaale:
_________________________________________________________

3. aanaa:
_________________________________________________________

4. yenna/ ennaa:
_________________________________________________________

5. kuzhandhainga padam:
_________________________________________________________

6. tholaikaatchi:
_________________________________________________________

7. saththamaa:
_________________________________________________________

8. pazhagu :
_________________________________________________________

9. anaichidu:
_________________________________________________________

10. kachcheri:
_________________________________________________________

11. juram:
_________________________________________________________

12. kannaadi:
_________________________________________________________

13. ellaarum:
_________________________________________________________

14. maaththu:
_________________________________________________________

15. kaththuko:
_________________________________________________________

16. alavarisai :
_________________________________________________________

17. neththu:
_________________________________________________________

18. yaarume illa:
_________________________________________________________

19. theduraan:
_________________________________________________________

20. mazhai:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Manaivi – wife
Padam – movie/ picture
Pasanga – children
Kuzhandhainga padam – kids’ movie
Ellaarum – everyone
Kannaadi – glasses
Edhanale – why
Idhanaale – This is why/ So
Yenaa/ ennaa – Because
Mazhai – Rain
Nanai – To get wet
Adhukku – For that
Edhukku – For what/ why
Tholaikaatchi – Television
Alaivarisai – Channel
Maaththu – To change
Anai – To turn off/ switch off
Vaasi – To play
Kaththukiraa – She is learning
Payirchi – Practice
Yaarume illa – No one/ none/ nobody
Saththamaa – Loud
Kachcheri – Concert
Pazhagu – Practice
Thedu – Find

 

Translate:


1. She wanted that doll, so she cried.

2. He did not come, so I was angry.

3. I love eating donuts so my mother bought some donuts.

4. The school was quiet, as the boys had gone for a match.

5. I sold the old watch because I wanted a new one.

6. Everyone loves him, because he looks handsome.

7. He sleeps because he is very tired.

8. She was beautiful, because her mom too was beautiful.

9. She was rich and so he loved her.

10. They are vegans, so they eat only vegetables.

11. My mom shouted, because I broke her favorite vase.

12. I did not have a pen, so he gave me one.

13. It is Diwali, so the children are bursting crackers..

 

Try to describe the picture:

Tenses – Perfect Continuous Lesson 59

Lesson 59

  1. When? –Perfect Continuous
  2. Pudhu Vaarthaigal
  3. Exercises

 

Lesson 59 When? – Tense – Perfect Continuous form

Today, we will see the Continuous form of the Tenses. But even before we start learning about Continuous form of the tenses, let us refresh by translating these Simple form sentences.

• Raju ate an apple everyday.

• Dad had gone to the market today morning.

• Grandpa has forgotten me.

• Vita has brought these flowers.

• John would have bought newspaper.

• Tommy has always obeyed his master.

• Mom saves money in the bank.

• Danny lost the coin yesterday.

• Rasi wears new dress every week.

• Grandma has read us a new story today.

• Sumitha is counting the money in her purse.

 

Perfect Continuous form of the tenses

We are going to see the simple form in all the three tenses. Try framing more by yourself.

 

Past Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous

Naan – I (Sing.)First person
Nee enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhe? Nee enna senjittu irundhu-irruke? Nee enna senjittu irundhu-irrupe?
Naan nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhen. Naan inge paadam padichittu irundhu-irukken Naan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupen
Naan appo dress pottittu irundhu-irrundhen. Naan ippo pudhu dress pottittu irundhu-irruken. Naalaikku Naan pirandha naal dress pottittu irundhu-irrupen.
Naan andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhen. Naan ippo vaazhai pazham saaptittu irundhu-irruken. Naan andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupen.
Naanga – We (Plu.) First person
Neenga enna senjittu irundhu-irrundheenga? Neenga enna senjittu irundhu-irrukeenga? Neenga enna senjittu irundhu-irrupeenga?
Naanga nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhom. Naanga innaikku paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukrom. Naanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupom.
Naanga appo dress pottittu irundhu-irrundhom. Naanga ippo room-la dress pottittu irundhu-irrukrom. Naanga naalaikku fancy dress pottittu irundhu-irrupom.
Naanga andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhom. Naanga inge nalla saaptittu irundhu- irrukrom. Naanga naalaikku indha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupom.
Nee– You ( Sing.) Second person
Nee/Neenga nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga innaikku nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/Neenga nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Nee/Neenga appo dress potittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga ippo room-la dress potittu irundhu-irruke/eenga. Nee/Neenga naalaikku fancy dress potittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga.
Nee/ Neenga andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/ Neenga ippo ozhungaa saaptittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/ Neenga naalaikku idhe neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Neenga – You (Plu.) Second person
Nee/Neenga nethu paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga innaikku nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/Neenga nallaa paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Nee/Neenga appo dress potittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/Neenga ippo room-la dress potittu irundhu-irruke/eenga. Nee/Neenga naalaikku fancy dress potittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga.
Nee/ Neenga andha neram saaptittu irundhu-irrundhe/eenga Nee/ Neenga ippo ozhungaa saaptittu irundhu-irruke/eenga Nee/ Neenga naalaikku idhe neram saaptittu irundhu-irrupe/eenga
Avan – He (Third person ) Informal
Avan enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhaan? Avan enna senjittu irundhu-irrukaan? Avan enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaan?
Avan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaan Avan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaan Avan paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaan
Avan dress potittu irundhu-irrundhaan Avan dress potittu irundhu-irrukaan Avan dress potittu irundhu-irrupaan
Avan saapitittu irundhu-irrundhaan Avan saapitittu irundhu- irrukaan Avan saapitittu irundhu-irrupaan
Avar – He (Third person ) – Formal
Avar enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhaar? Avar enna senjittu irundhu- irrukaar? Avar enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaar?
Avar paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaar Avar paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaar Avar paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaar
Avar dress potittu irundhu-irrundhaar Avar dress potittu irundhu-irrukaar Avar dress potittu irundhu-irrupaar
Avar saapitittu irundhu- irrundhaar Avar saapitittu irundhu- irrukaar Avar saapitittu irundhu-irrupaar
Aval – She – Informal – Third person
Aval enna senjittu irundhu- irrundhaa? Aval enna senjittu irundhu-irrukaa/irrukaanga? Aval enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaa?
Aval paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaa Aval paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaa Aval paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaa
Aval dress potittu irundhu-irrundhaa Aval dress potittu irundhu-irrukaa Aval dress potittu irundhu-irrupaa
Aval saapitittu irundhu-irrundhaa Aval saapitittu irundhu-irrukaa/kaanga Aval saapitittu irundhu-irrupaa
Avanga – She Third person – Formal
Avanga enna senjittu irundhu- irrundhaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu- irrukaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu- irrupaanga?
Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu- irundhaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu- irukaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu- irupaanga
Avanga dress potittu irundhu- irundhaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu- irukaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu- irupaanga
Avanga saapitittu irundhu- irundhaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu- irukaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu- irupaanga
Avanga – They (Plu.) Third person
Avanga enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu-irrukaanga? Avanga enna senjittu irundhu-irrupaanga?
Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrundhaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrukaanga Avanga paadam padichittu irundhu-irrupaanga
Avanga dress potittu irundhu-irundhaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu-irrukaanga Avanga dress potittu irundhu-irrupaanga
Avanga saapitittu irundhu-irundhaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu-irrukaanga Avanga saapitittu irundhu-irrupaanga
Adhu/Idhu – IT Third person
Adhu/Idhu enna senjittu irundhu-irrundhadhu/ irrundhichu? Adhu/Idhu enna senjittu irundhu-irruku? Adhu/Idhu enna senjittu irundhu-irrukum?
Adhu/Idhu veliya paarthittu irundhu-irrundhadhu Adhu/Idhu veliya paarthittu irundhu-irruku Adhu/Idhu veliya paarthittu irundhu-irrukum
Adhu/Idhu dress potittu irundhu-irrundhadhu Adhu/Idhu dress potittu irundhu-irrukudhu Adhu/Idhu dress potittu irundhu-irrukum
Adhu/Idhu saapadu saapitittu irundhu-irrundhadhu Adhu/Idhu saapadu saapitittu irundhu-irrukudhu Adhu/Idhu saapadu saapitittu irundhu-irrukum

 

Examples of the Perfect Continuous form:

 


Gopi : Thambi, indha vandi-a unga thaathaa evalavu naala payan paduthittu irundh-irundhaar. How long had been your grandpa using this vehicle.
Vineeth : Avar 10 varushamaa payanpaduthittu irundh-irundhaar. He had been using it for about 10 years.
Avarukku apramaa, en appa moonu varushamaa indha vandi-a vechittu irundh-irukaanga. And after that, my dad has been using it for three years.
Naan idha rendu varushamaa payan paduthittu irundhen. I have been using it for two years.

 

Anjali, nee US-la irundha podhu, endha church-kku pone? Which church did you go to, when you had been in US.
Naan GLG church-kku poyittu irundh-irundhen. I had been going to GLG church.
Ange naan 4 varushamaa Sunday school-kku poyittu irundh-irundhen. There, I had been going to the Sunday school for four years.
Naanum 2 vaysule irundhu, Sunday school-kku poyittu irundh-irukken.. Even I too have been going to Sunday school for 2 years.


 


Mr. Rajeev, thoongaadheenga! Mr. Rajeev, don’t sleep.
Naan neththu raathiri muzhusaa project velai paarthittu irundhen.. I was doing the project work, the whole night.
Poi solladheenga! Neenga neththu raathiri padam paarthittu irundh-iruppeenga. Don’t lie. You would have been watching the late night movie.
Hmm. Adhu ungalukku eppadi theriyum. How do you know that?
Naanum ippadi thaan. Late night movie paarthaa, office-la thoonguven. I am just like you. I sleep in the office when I watch late night movies.

 

Ajith-oda thaatha paati 10 varaushamaa, India-la vaazhndhittu irundh-irukaanga. Ajith’s grandparents have been living in India, for 10 years.
Adhukku munnaadi, 15 varushamaa, New York-la vaazhndhittu irundh-irudhaanga. Before that, they have been in NY for 15 years.
Avanga India-la, Ajith kooda romba sandhoshamaa vaazhndhittu irundh-irupaanga. They would have been living with Ajith, very happily.
Avangalukku, Ajith-a vittu thirumba New York-kku poga virupame illai. They are not happy about leaving behind Ajith and going back to NY.


 


Arasan Shah Jahan, thannoda manaivi Mumtaaz-oda ninaiva Taj Mahal kattinaar.. Emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaaz.
Idha 18 varushamaa kattittu irundh-irudhaangalam. They had been building it for 18 years.
Idha India arasaangam, pala varushamaa paadhukaathittu irundh-irukaanga. The Indian government has been taking good care of this for years.

 


Cinderella oru azhagaana ilavarasi. Cinderella is a beautiful princess.
Adhukku munnaadi, Avaloda chiththi avalai romba naalaa, veetu velai seiya vechittu irundh-irukaanga. Before that, her step mom has been making her do all the household work.
Oru naal, avaloda chitthi-um, avaloda magalgalum oru arasanoda virundhukku poi-irundh-irukaanga. One day, her stepmom and her daughters had been going for a party.
Aval than veetu thottathle azhudhittu irundh-irundhaa.. She had been crying in her garden.
Adhukku apramaa enna nadandhichu.. unakku theriyuma? Do you know what happened after that?


 

Try to say the following in Tamil. Also try to change it to tenses that we learnt today.

1. Raju has been singing since 3 years of age.

2. Dad has always been shopping all these days.

3. Grandpa would have been eating too uch of sweets.

4. Veeta is chewing gum in class.

5. John has been buying newspapers for these months.

6. Tommy had been obeying his master always.

7. Pascal has been coming to school late.

8. Mom will be saving money in the bank.

9. Danny had been sleeping all day.

10. Grandma would have been reading stories for him.

11. Sumitha has been believing him all these years.

12. Rasi would have been wearing a new dress.

 

Try to frame sentences with the given verbs in the perfect tense:

1. Po:
__________________________________________

2. Vaa:
_________________________________________

3. Thoongu:
_____________________________________

4. Vettu:
________________________________________

5. Madi:
________________________________________

6. Pesu:
_________________________________________

7. Saapidu:
______________________________________

8. Otu:
__________________________________________

9. Thallu:
________________________________________

10. Vilayaadu:
____________________________________

11. Vaangu:
______________________________________

12. Padi :
________________________________________

13. Ezhudhu :
_____________________________________

 

Try to say about the pictures in the tenses we learnt today.

 

Describe the picture, using the prepositions and tenses:

 

Conjunctions – Because, Since, As – Lesson 58

Lesson 58

  1. Conjunctions – Because, Since & As
  2. Examples
  3. Exercises
  4. Describe the picture

 

Lesson 58 Conjunctions – Part 3 ( Because, Since & As)

Today we are going to see about another three conjugations. Because, Since and As.

‘Because’ is used to express a reason.

He is the best student because he studies a lot.

The because is replaced by since and as in some sentences.This is a case not only in English, but also in Tamil too.
Now let us see how we frame such sentences using Because, Since and As.

 

For ‘Because/ Since/ As’ – ennaa / -aale

Ex:

1. He is the best student because he studies a lot.
Avan thaan sirandha maanavan, ennaa avan romba adhigamaa padikiren.

2. Since he studies a lot, he is the best student.
Avan romba adhigamaa padikradhaale, avan thaan sirandha maanavan.

3. He is the best student, as he studies a lot.
Avan romba adhigamaa padikradhaale, avan thaan sirandha maanavan.

The since and the as pattern is usually similar and they are the ones that are most commonly used in the spoken form.

Since and As are used in other sentences, where they have a different meaning. But now let’s see when they are used as a equivalent of Because.

 

Examples


Inaikku Kaadhalar dhinam endrathaal, Vikram Rathikku oru modhiram vaangi-irukkaan. Vikram has bought a ring for Rathi, as it is Valentine’s day.

We do not speak this way. Now let us see how we speak …

Vikram Rathikku oru modhiram vaangi-irukkaan, ennaa inaikku Kaadhalar dhinam. Vikram has bought a ring for Rathi, as it is Valentine’s day.
Adhu romba vilai adhigam ennaa, andha kal romba aridhaanadhu. It is an expensive ring as it is a very rare gem.

Now look at the sentence given below. It is in the written form. Now try to use the spoken form …

Vikram romba anbaanavan endrathaal, Rathikkum Vikram romba pidikkum. Rathi too loves Vikram because he is a loving person.

 


Inaikku, Prem-kku romba adhigamaa juram irukku. Avan neththu ice-cream saapittaan. Prem has a high fever. He ate ice cream yesterday.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Inaikku, Prem-kku romba juram irukku, ennaa neththu avan niraya ice-cream saapitaan. Prem has a high fever today, because he ate ice-creams yesterday.
Avanukku marundhu kudikka pidikkale. Adhu romba kasappaa irukku. He doesn’t like to drink his medicine. It is very bitter.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Avanukku marundhu kudikka pidikkale, ennaa adhu romba kasappa irukku. He doesn’t like to drink the medicine, as it is too bitter.

 


Viji-kku avaloda naai Mani romba pidikkum. Adhu eppavum avalukku keezhpadiyum. Viji loves her dog, Mani. It always obeys her.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Vijikku avaloda naai, Mani-a romba pidikkum, ennaa adhu avalukku eppavum keezhpadiyum. Viji loves her dog, Mani, because it always obeys her.
Mani oru elumbu thundu pidikka oduraan. Avanukku elumbu-na romba pidikkum. Mani is running to catch a piece of bone. He likes bones very much.

Now let us try to use the –ennaa and connect the two sentences:

Mani oru elumbu thund-a pidika oduraan, ennaa avanukku elumbu-na romba pidikkum. Mani is running to catch a piece of bone, as he loves bones.

 

Exercise

Try to frame sentences in Tamil:

1. Kaadhalar dhinam:
_________________________________________________________

2. modhiram:
_________________________________________________________

3. vilai:
_________________________________________________________

4. kal:
_________________________________________________________

5. aridhu:
_________________________________________________________

6. ennaa:
_________________________________________________________

7. elumbu thundu:
_________________________________________________________

8. pidikka odu :
_________________________________________________________

9. kasappu:
_________________________________________________________

10. niraya:
_________________________________________________________

11. juram:
_________________________________________________________

12. marundhu:
_________________________________________________________

13. kudikka pidikkale:
_________________________________________________________

14. keezhpadi:
_________________________________________________________

15. eppavum:
_________________________________________________________

16. inaikku :
_________________________________________________________

17. neththu:
_________________________________________________________

18. saapittaan:
_________________________________________________________

19. vilai adhigam:
_________________________________________________________

20. anbaanavar:
_________________________________________________________

 

Pudhu Vaarthaigal:

Kaadhalar dhinam – Valentine’s day
Modhiram – Ring
Vilai adhigam – Expensive, costly
Aridhu – Rare
Vaangi-irukkaan – He has bought
Kal – Stone/ gem
Anbaanavan – He is loving
Juram – Fever
Marundhu – Medicine
Kudikka – To drink (present participle)
Keezhpadi – Obey
Eppavum – Always
Inaikku – Today
Neththu – Yesterday
Elumbu – Bone
Elumbu thundu – A piece of bone
Pidikka odu – Runs to catch
Kasappu – Bitter

 

Translate:


1. She washed the clothes because they were very dirty.

2. He bought me some flowers because I was angry.

3. I love eating donuts because they are very sweet and tasty.

4. The school was quiet, as the boys had gone for a match.

5. I sold the old watch because it did not work.

6. Everyone loves him, because he looks handsome.

7. He sleeps because he is very tired.

8. She was beautiful, because her mom too was beautiful.

9. He loved her, because her father was a millionaire.

10. They don’t eat meat, because they are vegans .

11. My mom shouted, because I broke her favorite vase.

12. He asked for a pen, because he did not have one.

13. The chef prepares plum cakes, because it’s Christmas time.

 

Try to describe the picture: